July
m
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-07-01 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-07-01 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
01
tue
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-07-02 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-07-02 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
02
w
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-07-03 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-07-03 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
03
thu
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-07-04 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-07-04 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
04
f
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-07-05 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-07-05 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
05
sat
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-07-06 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-07-06 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
06
sun
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-07-07 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-07-07 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
07
m
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-07-08 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-07-08 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
08
tue
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-07-09 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-07-09 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
09
w
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-07-10 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-07-10 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
10
thu
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-07-11 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-07-11 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
11
f
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-07-12 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-07-12 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
12
sat
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-07-13 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-07-13 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
13
sun
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-07-14 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-07-14 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
14
m
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-07-15 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-07-15 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
15
tue
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-07-16 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-07-16 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
16
w
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-07-17 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-07-17 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
17
thu
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-07-18 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-07-18 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
18
f
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-07-19 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-07-19 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
19
sat
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-07-20 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-07-20 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
20
sun
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-07-21 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-07-21 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
21
m
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-07-22 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-07-22 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
22
tue
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-07-23 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-07-23 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
23
w
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-07-24 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-07-24 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
24
thu
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-07-25 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-07-25 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
25
f
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-07-26 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-07-26 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
26
sat
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-07-27 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-07-27 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
27
sun
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-07-28 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-07-28 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
28
m
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-07-29 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-07-29 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
29
tue
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-07-30 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-07-30 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
30
w
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-07-31 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-07-31 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
31
August
thu
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-08-01 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-08-01 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
01
f
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-08-02 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-08-02 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
02
sat
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-08-03 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-08-03 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
03
sun
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-08-04 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-08-04 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
04
m
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-08-05 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-08-05 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
05
tue
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-08-06 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-08-06 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
06
w
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-08-07 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-08-07 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
07
thu
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-08-08 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-08-08 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
08
f
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-08-09 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-08-09 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
09
sat
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-08-10 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-08-10 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
10
sun
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-08-11 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-08-11 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
11
m
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-08-12 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-08-12 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
12
tue
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-08-13 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-08-13 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
13
w
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-08-14 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-08-14 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
14
thu
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-08-15 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-08-15 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
15
f
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-08-16 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-08-16 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
16
sat
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-08-17 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-08-17 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
17
sun
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-08-18 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-08-18 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
18
m
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-08-19 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-08-19 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
19
tue
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-08-20 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-08-20 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
20
w
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-08-21 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-08-21 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
21
thu
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-08-22 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-08-22 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
22
f
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-08-23 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-08-23 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
23
sat
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-08-24 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-08-24 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
24
sun
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-08-25 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-08-25 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
25
m
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-08-26 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-08-26 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
26
tue
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-08-27 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-08-27 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
27
w
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-08-28 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-08-28 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
28
thu
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-08-29 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-08-29 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
29
f
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-08-30 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-08-30 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
30
sat
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-08-31 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-08-31 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
31
September
sun
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-09-01 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-09-01 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
01
m
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-09-02 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-09-02 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
02
tue
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-09-03 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-09-03 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
03
w
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-09-04 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-09-04 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
04
thu
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-09-05 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-09-05 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
05
f
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-09-06 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-09-06 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
06
sat
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-09-07 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-09-07 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
07
sun
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-09-08 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-09-08 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
08
m
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-09-09 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-09-09 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
09
tue
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-09-10 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-09-10 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
10
w
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-09-11 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-09-11 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
11
thu
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-09-12 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-09-12 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
12
f
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-09-13 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-09-13 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
13
sat
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-09-14 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-09-14 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
14
sun
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-09-15 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-09-15 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
15
m
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-09-16 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-09-16 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
16
tue
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-09-17 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-09-17 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
17
w
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-09-18 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-09-18 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
18
thu
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-09-19 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-09-19 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
19
f
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-09-20 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-09-20 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
20
sat
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-09-21 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-09-21 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
21
sun
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-09-22 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-09-22 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
22
m
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-09-23 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-09-23 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
23
tue
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-09-24 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-09-24 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
24
w
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-09-25 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-09-25 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
25
thu
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-09-26 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-09-26 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
26
f
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-09-27 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-09-27 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
27
sat
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-09-28 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-09-28 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
28
sun
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-09-29 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-09-29 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
29
m
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-09-30 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-09-30 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
30
October
tue
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-10-01 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-10-01 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
01
w
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-10-02 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-10-02 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
02
thu
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-10-03 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-10-03 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
03
f
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-10-04 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-10-04 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
04
sat
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-10-05 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-10-05 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
05
sun
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-10-06 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-10-06 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
06
m
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-10-07 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-10-07 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
07
tue
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-10-08 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-10-08 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
08
w
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-10-09 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-10-09 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
09
thu
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-10-10 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-10-10 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
10
f
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-10-11 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-10-11 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
11
sat
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-10-12 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-10-12 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
12
sun
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-10-13 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-10-13 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
13
m
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-10-14 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-10-14 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
14
tue
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-10-15 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-10-15 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
15
w
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-10-16 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-10-16 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
16
thu
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-10-17 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-10-17 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
17
f
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-10-18 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-10-18 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
18
sat
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-10-19 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-10-19 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
19
sun
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-10-20 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-10-20 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
20
m
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-10-21 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-10-21 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
21
tue
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-10-22 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-10-22 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
22
w
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-10-23 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-10-23 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
23
thu
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-10-24 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-10-24 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
24
f
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-10-25 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-10-25 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
25
sat
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-10-26 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-10-26 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
26
sun
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-10-27 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-10-27 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
27
sun
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-10-27 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-10-27 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
27
m
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-10-28 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-10-28 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
28
tue
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-10-29 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-10-29 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
29
w
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-10-30 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-10-30 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
30
thu
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-10-31 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-10-31 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
31
November
f
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-11-01 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-11-01 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
01
sat
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-11-02 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-11-02 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
02
sun
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-11-03 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-11-03 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
03
m
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-11-04 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-11-04 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
04
tue
SELECT * FROM apx_ajtk_programok WHERE DateTime_program > '2019-11-05 00:00:00' AND DateTime_program < '2019-11-05 23:59:59' AND Lang = '2' AND Active = 10
05
w
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Climate change: a reason of armed conflicts

an indirect root cause of the “Arab Spring”?

Nowadays, climate change is mostly mentioned as a “threat multiplier,” because its direct effects and indirect consequences have several times been identified as the root cause of armed conflicts or civil wars. Fight for water, mass migration from drought-stricken areas, forced conquest of new lands… these have been ever-returning phenomena throughout the history of humankind. In what way has the case of the Middle East been different recently? To what extent did the severe drought between 2009 and 2011, the one which was the worst in the last 900 years, contribute to the outbreak of the “Arab Spring”? How could climate change become the main shaper of the history of cultures and regions, and what role do humans play in it? In the second part of my research article series, I attempt to have a look at these questions, using Egypt as a showcase.

Source: Shutterstock

 

The “Arab Spring” in 2010–2011 did not avoid Egypt either, promising a democratic change in Hosni Mubarak’s authoritarian regime, which had been around for decades. The increasing tensions gushed out powerfully in Cairo, just like in other Middle Eastern cities, and they generated an almost civil war like situation. Middle Eastern protests that exploded suddenly in the beginning of the 2010s were a total shock to global political leaders. Affected countries had seemed to be operable and calm until that moment; however, the sudden disappearance of their plenipotentiary dictators, who had governed for the previous 20-30-40 years, left anarchy and chaos behind. Nevertheless, if we read between the lines, we can see that ethnic and religious tensions, economic degradation, and social and political discontent many times stem from the drought and the consequent severe water stress. Thus, the question arises: Why did the tension become unmanageable in 2010–2011, and what role did the serious drought play in it?

The historic drought in the Middle Eastern region, which was the most severe in the last 900 years, has already been presented in the first part of my research article series. The phenomenon was illustrated by data from paleoclimatology, and NASA also confirmed its importance in one of its newest studies. An Egypt-oriented climatological analysis also corroborated the extraordinary nature of this natural phenomenon. It proved convincingly that the drought began in the early 2000s, and its peak was between 2009 and 2011. The latter was also the time when demonstrations at Tahrir square escalated. Thus, another question also arises: Did the phenomenon had an influence on how pent-up tensions surfaced?

 

The picture shows how severely precipitation deficit affects the Nile valley, which is all marked with red

Source: Grid Arendal

 

The first examined factor of this concatenation is the population explosion which hit the region in the second half of the 20th century. In the past fifty years, the number of people increased by 194%, from 27 million to 85.8 million in 2011. This rapid population growth had several serious consequences, making Egypt’s not too strong environmental capacities more vulnerable. This process also changed the age distribution of the social pyramid. The working age population (i.e. people between 15 and 64 years) dramatically increased: while its share was 54.5% in 1990, it rose to 63% in 2011. The proportion of young people is high across the whole Arab world, and in Egypt, this growing tendency could also be observed during the demonstrations. All this is becoming relevant in the context of unemployment. Growing population went hand in hand with growing needs, and—as I have already mentioned—it led to the deterioration of the environmental conditions and water scarcity. The critical, multi-year drought caused decreasing resources, and this process might have enhanced the escalation of tensions.

The serious drought took water scarcity to a critical level in the Middle East. I have already referred to Egypt’s inherently vulnerable water resources; the shortage of water is due to that the average annual rainfall is only 51 mm, and the country’s main water resource is the Nile, a river that suffers from growing pollution and the mal-effects of climate change. It provides water to the 85% of the population, and the country’s whole agriculture is built around it, which also means that only 3% of all Egypt’s territory is arable. The wasteful and outdated irrigation system and the serious drought (which is at the root of the whole process) have also exasperated the situation. Consequently, these factors have increasingly posed a serious challenge to the country’s agriculture, and they presumably increased the growing tensions.

The agriculture has a 15% share in the country’s GDP and is responsible for 28% of all jobs. However, water shortage—as a consequence of the critical aridity—caused a drastic fall in production after the 2008–2009 period. From almost 24 million tons, the produced amount of cereals shrank to barely 19 million in 2011. This quantity was the lowest in the past twenty years. Egypt needs significant cereal import since the 1990s; this starting point also coincides with the appearance of the critical drought, as the paleoclimatological data in the Old World Drought Atlas show. The country’s exposure to imports grew so rapidly that Egypt, together with Japan, is now one of the biggest global importers of cereals, since it needs to cover 40% of its cereal need from abroad. Imports reached a record high level in 2011–2010, with volumes not seen since the beginning of the 1990s. All this was due to the peak of the severe and historic drought.

Tensions were further increased by the 2007–2008 global financial crisis. The price of the cereals, and that of the oil, started to soar. However, despite the high prices, Egypt and other countries struck by the same malaises were forced to continue importing because of the harsh weather conditions. This situation encouraged cereal-exporting countries to set even higher prices to their cereals sold on foreign markets because they could assume that the states that needed import would eventually pay for them.

 

A demonstration in Egypt

Source: Shutterstock

 

Coming back to the societal aspects of agriculture, this sector is responsible for almost 30% of all jobs in the country, and if we focus on women, it absorbs 45% of female labour force. In Upper Egypt, 55% of the employment depends on the agriculture. These data demonstrate well the high levels of risk in an arid period such as the one between 2009 and 2011. In Egypt, agricultural production is mainly based on small holders, and their agricultural equipment is outdated, which makes even more difficult to fight against climate change and its negative effects. All the above factors might have played a role in that people from the countryside set out to find better circumstances in large urban areas. Water shortage that become more critical after the drought, along with the consequent hardships and unemployment in agriculture, might have been a serious incentive to migration and caused increased despair among people. Therefore, it is not a coincidence that the rate of urbanization has seen its highest levels in the early 2000s and between 2008 and 2013. These periods coincided with the coming and the peak of historical droughts, as well as the escalation of the Tahrir square demonstrations.

There is a relative consensus among scholars about the direct root causes of the “Arab Spring.” These are youth unemployment, dependence on imported cereals and their high prices, the total lack of perspectives, and changing identities. By the latter, I mean increased radicalism and the growingly heterogeneous society due to the fast pace of urbanization. Overall, there are two important phenomena that are worth paying attention to. First, it is the agricultural sector that employs the highest number of young people. However, between 2007 and 2010, there was a notable increase in the unemployment rate. This tendency coincides with the peak of the drought, and therefore, with the drop in production. As I have already demonstrated, water scarcity that came after the critical drought led to a crisis in the agricultural sector, to shrinking employment, and to an increased rate of unemployment. On the other hand, population explosion in the last decades increased the number of young people, while the sector which usually absorbed them could not provide enough jobs, and so tension began to build up in the most agile part of the society. The second important phenomenon is the increased ethnic, cultural, and religious heterogeneity in the wake of urbanization, which just added fuel to the fire.

To sum up, the presented aspects—demographic change, the country’s excessive dependency on agriculture, a sharp rise in unemployment—caused the tensions to mount in all cases. The period of drastic changes in these variables also falls on the interval between 2009 and 2011, which coincides with the peak of the historic drought, while the end of this period corresponds to the year of the “Arab Spring.” We can reasonably conclude that climate change have become a “threat multiplier” through the shortage of water, so water scarcity is the agent which contributes to increased tensions through specific factors (population explosion, agricultural degradation, and forced urbanisation).